|2015 Homeschool History Fair of the Ozarks||
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September 22, 1975: Sara Jane Moore attempted to assassinate President Gerald Ford, but was foiled by a former US Marine named Oliver Sipple. She was about 40 feet away from President Ford when she fired a single shot at him with a .38 caliber revolver. She was standing in the crowd across the street from the St. Francis Hotel. She was using a gun she bought in haste that same morning and did not know the sights were six inches off the point-of-impact at that distance and she narrowly missed. FBI case agent Richard Vitamanti measured the location the next day. After realizing she had missed, she raised her arm again, when Sipple dived towards her, knocking her arm the second time, perhaps saving President Ford's life.
September 23, 1889: Nintendo Koppai (Later Nintendo Company, Limited) was founded by Fusajiro Yamauchi to produce and market the playing card game Hanafuda. By 1963, the company had tried several small niche businesses, such as cab services and hotels. Abandoning previous ventures, Nintendo developed into a video game company, becoming one of the most influential in the industry and Japan's third most valuable listed company with a market value of over $85 billion. Nintendo of America is also the majority owner of the Seattle Mariners. The name Nintendo can be roughly translated from Japanese to English as "leave luck to heaven." As of June 30, 2013, Nintendo has sold over 655.9 million hardware units and 4.12 billion software units.
September 24, 1906: President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed Devils Tower in Wyoming as the nation's first National Monument. The power to grant national monuments comes from the Antiquities Act of 1906, which resulted from concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts (collectively termed "antiquities") on federal lands in the West. The Act authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for persons taking or destroying antiquities without permission. The Act also authorized presidents to proclaim "historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest" as national monuments, "the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected."
September 25, 1974: The first ulnar collateral ligament replacement surgery performed, on baseball player Tommy John. The procedure was first performed by orthopedic surgeon Dr. Frank Jobe, then a Los Angeles Dodgers team physician who today serves as a special advisor to the team. The surgery is now named after John, whose 288 career victories ranks seventh all time among left-handed pitchers.
September 26, 1960: In Chicago, the first televised debate took place between presidential candidates Richard M. Nixon and John F. Kennedy. In the first of four such debates, Nixon appeared pale, with a five o'clock shadow, in contrast to the photogenic Kennedy. Nixon's performance in the debate was perceived to be mediocre in the visual medium of television, though many people listening on the radio thought that Nixon had won. Nixon lost the election narrowly, with Kennedy ahead by only 120,000 votes (0.2 percent) in the popular vote.
September 27, 1937: Balinese Tiger was declared extinct. This was one of three subspecies of tigers found in Indonesia, together with the Javan tiger, which is also extinct, and the critically endangered Sumatran tiger. It was the smallest of the tiger subspecies. The last specimen definitely recorded was a female shot at Sumbar Kima, west Bali, on September 27, 1937. However, a few animals likely survived into the 1940s and possibly 1950s. The subspecies became extinct because of habitat loss and hunting. Given the small size of the island, and limited forest cover, the original population could never have been large.
September 28, 1928: Sir Alexander Fleming notices a bacteria-killing mold growing in his laboratory, discovering what later became known as penicillin. He showed that, if Penicillium rubens were grown in the appropriate substrate, it would exude a substance with antibiotic properties, which he dubbed penicillin. This serendipitous observation began the modern era of antibiotic discovery.